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The phases of sleep and restful sleep

Sleep is the most frequent activity of every human being, being of fundamental importance for the health of our organism. As we learned in the article on "how to take CBD for sleep", sleep disorders are very common and can have negative consequences on many metabolic functions, as well as entailing varying degrees of personal and occupational disability.

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The phases of sleep

Sleep is made up of several cycles of approximately 1:30-2 hours' duration that are repeated 5-6 times each night: for this reason it is advisable to have 7-8 hours of sleep, as a shorter duration would mean a reduction in the number of cycles and/or the possibility of interrupting one of them, which would have a negative influence on the quality of sleep and rest.

Each sleep cycle is composed of 4 phases, of which only the last one represents REM sleep (rapid eye movement)

After 70-90 minutes, sleep begins:

How CBD can help you get better sleep

The rhythm of sleep and wakefulness is regulated by two biological mechanisms:

The endocannabinoid system is primarily responsible for maintaining the psycho-physical balance of our organism, and therefore plays a very important role in the regulation of circadian rhythms and the different phases of sleep (11).

Fluctuations in the concentration of the main endocannabinoids in the brain are related to the sleep-wake cycle, in particular 2-AG is more present during the day and promotes alertness, while Anandamide is more concentrated at night, promoting the appearance of slow brain waves.

The cannabinoid receptor most involved in brain circuits and whose expression influences the regulation of circadian rhythms and the stability of NREM sleep is the CB1 receptor, through which the Endocannabinoid System modulates the different neurotransmitters involved in the different phases of sleep.

One third of the world's population reports having problems related to the quantity or quality of sleep, which can be caused by a variety of factors, from stress or illness to eating habits and daily activities. In addition, sleep disorders can be a trigger for psychiatric problems such as anxiety and depression, as well as having a negative impact on the quality of daily life.

In any of the above-mentioned cases, an altered activity of the Endocannabinoid System can be observed, therefore a treatment with phytocannabinoids could be very promising.

In particular, CBD could represent a very effective tool due to its different properties:

References and Studies on CBD and insomnia

Studies show that among the vast majority of therapeutic users of Cannabis, one of the main reasons for its use is to alleviate sleep problems or improve sleep quality (4-6).

Some studies have shown beneficial effects of CBD on the quantity and quality of sleep (14), increasing its duration and reducing night-time awakenings, as well as being able to alleviate behavioural disorders during REM sleep (3-13).

Other studies have observed an improvement in sleep problems related to phase 3 NREM sleep, due to an inhibitory effect on FAAH enzymes (Anandamide degrading enzymes), which is one of the effects of CBD on the endocannabinoid system (6).

In clinical trials of Sativex, it has been observed that a balanced combination of THC and CBD provides significant improvements in sleep quality (5), and some researchers hypothesise that CBD can improve sleep problems when accompanied by a small proportion of THC, thanks to the synergistic effect between the two compounds. In general, while sporadic use of higher amounts of THC may facilitate a state of relaxation and drowsiness, continued use may negatively influence sleep quality (7-12).

Clinical trials are showing very promising results using CBD products alone or in combination with other cannabinoids such as THC and CBN. (6)

Aceite de CBD: descubre los beneficios

How to take CBD to facilitate restful sleep

To alleviate sleep problems and to improve its restorative effect, it is essential to take CBD internally, especially through sublingual use (not regulated in Spain).

In general, it is advisable to start with a low to medium concentration of cbd oil (5%-10%), initially using minimal doses and gradually increasing the amount of drops until the effect appears. If you want to go down this route, it is advisable to seek advice and follow-up with a specialised health professional.

Other tips to help you get a good night's sleep

The quality of sleep can be influenced both positively and negatively by some daily habits, so there are some good practices that help to facilitate a restful sleep, for example:

Final conclusions on CBD and insomnia

Thanks to its relaxing and modulating effect on the Endocannabinoid System, CBD can represent a valuable therapeutic tool both for dealing with sleep-related problems and for optimising and facilitating its regenerative and restorative effect.

Is CBD safe? Precautions

CBD is a very safe substance even if used in large quantities, but care should be taken when taking medication or if you suffer from heart or blood pressure problems. For this reason in these cases it is always advisable to contact a health professional.
Possible adverse effects
Adverse effects are usually mild to moderate in severity and may include tiredness, drowsiness, dry mouth, dizziness and decreased appetite.

Bibliography:

  1. https://espanol.nichd.nih.gov/salud/temas/sleep/informacion/sucede
  2. https://www.ninds.nih.gov/health-information/patient-caregiver-education/brain-basics-understanding-sleep
  3. https://www.projectcbd.org/medicine/cannabis-sleep-disturbances
  4. Babson, K.A., Bonn-Miller, M.O. (2014) Sleep Disturbances: Implications for Cannabis Use, Cannabis Use Cessation, and Cannabis Use Treatment. Curr Addict Rep 1, 109–114
  5. Russo, E. B., Guy, G. W., & Robson, P. J. (2007). Cannabis, pain, and sleep: lessons from therapeutic clinical trials of Sativex, a cannabis-based medicine. Chemistry & biodiversity, 4(8), 1729–1743.
  6. Suraev, A. S., Marshall, N. S., Vandrey, R., McCartney, D., Benson, M. J., McGregor, I. S., Grunstein, R. R., & Hoyos, C. M. (2020). Cannabinoid therapies in the management of sleep disorders: A systematic review of preclinical and clinical studies. Sleep medicine reviews, 53, 101339.
  7. Kesner, A. J., & Lovinger, D. M. (2020). Cannabinoids, Endocannabinoids and Sleep. Frontiers in molecular neuroscience, 13, 125
  8. Pava, M. J., Makriyannis, A., & Lovinger, D. M. (2016). Endocannabinoid Signaling Regulates Sleep Stability. PloS one, 11(3), e0152473
  9. Méndez-Díaz, M., Ruiz-Contreras, A. E., Cortés-Morelos, J., & Prospéro-García, O. (2021). Cannabinoids and Sleep/Wake Control. Advances in experimental medicine and biology, 1297, 83–95
  10. Hanlon E. C. (2020). Impact of circadian rhythmicity and sleep restriction on circulating endocannabinoid (eCB) N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide). Psychoneuroendocrinology, 111, 104471
  11. Prospéro-García, O., Amancio-Belmont, O., Becerril Meléndez, A. L., Ruiz-Contreras, A. E., & Méndez-Díaz, M. (2016). Endocannabinoids and sleep. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews, 71, 671–679.
  12. Babson, K. A., Sottile, J., & Morabito, D. (2017). Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and Sleep: a Review of the Literature. Current psychiatry reports, 19(4), 23
  13. de Almeida, C., Brito, M., Bosaipo, N. B., Pimentel, A. V., Tumas, V., Zuardi, A. W., Crippa, J., Hallak, J., & Eckeli, A. L. (2021). Cannabidiol for Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder. Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society, 36(7), 1711–1715.
  14. Shannon, S., Lewis, N., Lee, H., & Hughes, S. (2019). Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: A Large Case Series. The Permanente journal, 23, 18–041. https://doi.org/10.7812/TPP/18-041

Among the diseases that can affect the musculoskeletal system, causing pain and inflammation, problems affecting the knees, one of the most complex joints in the human body due to its crucial role in maintaining posture and movement, stand out. Knee pain can have different causes and manifest itself in acute or chronic form, causing varying degrees of personal and occupational incapacity and negatively influencing the quality of life of the sufferer.

One of the most frequent causes of knee pain is osteoarthritis (OA), which occurs in 4% of the population and represents the eleventh leading cause of disability worldwide.

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Most common causes of knee pain

The knee is a joint composed of:

There are different problems that can affect the knees, causing pain and inflammation, and they can occur at any age, and may be related to specific mechanical trauma, the presence of a disease or wear and tear due to the passage of time. Being overweight can play a crucial role in the development of knee pain and problems, as can many physical and heavy sports or jobs.

The most common causes of knee pain can be:

Diagnóstico y tratamientos para el dolor de rodilla

Diagnosis is made by physical examination and using techniques such as arthroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging.

Depending on the severity of the problem, analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs are usually prescribed as well as compensatory physical exercise and weight control strategies, as postural changes due to knee problems can also lead to back pain.

In the most severe cases, surgery is necessary to heal bone fractures, tendon, ligament and meniscus injuries.

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How CBD works against knee pain

The endocannabinoid system, which is dedicated to maintaining the psycho-physical balance of our organism, is present in both the muscular and skeletal systems, participating in the processes of recovery from an injury or fracture and also modulating inflammatory processes and pain sensation thanks to its close relationship with the nervous and immune systems (3).

Different studies have observed the presence of endocannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 in the synovial fluid, and in people suffering from osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis, the presence of the main endocannabinoids such as anandamide and 2-AG, as well as the FAAH degrading enzyme, has also been recorded. (4) (5) (6)

CBD, thanks to its modulatory activity on the endocannabinoid system, can alleviate knee pain resulting from various causes. In particular, CBD would provide

Studies on the effect of CBD in animals

Numerous studies have recorded an analgesic, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effect of CBD in experimental models of osteoarthritis in animals, also observing a preventive effect against possible neurological damage and consequent neuropathic pain, and confirming the capacity to slow down the degenerative process, with doses of 5 mg/kg or 25 mg/day.

(7-8-9-10).

While most of the studies cited above have used the endovenous or transdermal route, there is one study carried out on dogs with OA using the ingested route: the results have shown significant improvements in symptoms after taking 4 mg of CBD a day for a month.

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Studies on the effect of CBD in humans

Preclinical evidence shows the beneficial effects of CBD in relieving pain and reducing inflammation in joints, demonstrating how phytocannabinoid treatments can represent a safe, effective and economical option for treating acute or chronic problems such as arthritis and osteoarthritis of the knee.

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More specifically, significant improvements have been reported following transdermal application of synthetic CBD and a clinical trial is currently under preparation to study the effectiveness of oral applications of CBD in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.

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El aceite de cbd ayuda contra todo tipo de dolores musculares. Descubre sus beneficios y propiedades.

How to take CBD for knee pain

According to studies, it is possible to take CBD internally in inhaled, sublingual and ingested form, as well as externally in topical and transdermal form, to treat knee pain.

The inhaled form, which ensures maximum and immediate effect, is used to cope with acute pain, using what is needed at the time.

The sublingual form (not regulated in Spain) is used to obtain a continuous and stable effect and represents a better option compared to the ingested form (not regulated in Spain). In general, it is advisable to start with a low to medium concentration CBD oil (5%-10%), starting with minimal doses and gradually increasing every two days until the effects appear. In this case, it is highly recommended to seek advice and monitoring by a specialised health professional.

Through the topical route, the effect is concentrated in the area of application, so it is also highly recommended to use CBD-rich oils, creams and ointments that can be applied 3-4 times a day, gently massaging the entire knee area until they are completely absorbed.

There are also transdermal patches on the market (including knee pads) which, in addition to having a direct effect on the area of application, allow a systemic effect to be obtained.

Precautions: Is CBD safe?

CBD is a very safe substance even if used in large quantities, but care should be taken when taking medication or if you have heart or blood pressure problems. For this reason in these cases it is always advisable to contact a health professional.

Possible adverse effects

Adverse effects are usually mild to moderate in severity and may include tiredness, drowsiness, dry mouth, dizziness and decreased appetite.

Bibliography:

  1. https://medlineplus.gov/spanish/kneeinjuriesanddisorders.html
  2. https://medlineplus.gov/spanish/ency/article/003187.htm
  3. Donvito, G., Nass, S. R., Wilkerson, J. L., Curry, Z. A., Schurman, L. D., Kinsey, S. G., & Lichtman, A. H. (2018). The Endogenous Cannabinoid System: A Budding Source of Targets for Treating Inflammatory and Neuropathic Pain. Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, 43(1), 52–79.
  4. Rzeczycki, P., Rasner, C., Lammlin, L., Junginger, L., Goldman, S., Bergman, R., Redding, S., Knights, A. J., Elliott, M., & Maerz, T. (2021). Cannabinoid receptor type 2 is upregulated in synovium following joint injury and mediates anti-inflammatory effects in synovial fibroblasts and macrophages. Osteoarthritis and cartilage, 29(12), 1720–1731.
  5. Richardson, D., Pearson, R. G., Kurian, N., Latif, M. L., Garle, M. J., Barrett, D. A., Kendall, D. A., Scammell, B. E., Reeve, A. J., & Chapman, V. (2008). Characterisation of the cannabinoid receptor system in synovial tissue and fluid in patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis research & therapy, 10(2), R43.
  6. Valastro, C., Campanile, D., Marinaro, M., Franchini, D., Piscitelli, F., Verde, R., Di Marzo, V., & Di Bello, A. (2017). Characterization of endocannabinoids and related acylethanolamides in the synovial fluid of dogs with osteoarthritis: a pilot study. BMC veterinary research, 13(1), 309. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-017-1245-7
  7. Kogan NM, Melamed E, Wasserman E, et al. Cannabidiol, a Major Non-Psychotropic Cannabis Constituent Enhances Fracture Healing and Stimulates Lysyl Hydroxylase Activity in Osteoblasts. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research : the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. 2015 Oct;30(10)
  8. Malfait, A. M., Gallily, R., Sumariwalla, P. F., Malik, A. S., Andreakos, E., Mechoulam, R., & Feldmann, M. (2000). The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97(17), 9561–9566.
  9. Philpott, H. T., O'Brien, M., & McDougall, J. J. (2017). Attenuation of early phase inflammation by cannabidiol prevents pain and nerve damage in rat osteoarthritis. Pain, 158(12), 2442–2451.
  10. Hammell, D. C., Zhang, L. P., Ma, F., Abshire, S. M., McIlwrath, S. L., Stinchcomb, A. L., & Westlund, K. N. (2016). Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviours in a rat model of arthritis. European journal of pain (London, England), 20(6), 936–948.
  11. Gamble, L. J., Boesch, J. M., Frye, C. W., Schwark, W. S., Mann, S., Wolfe, L., Brown, H., Berthelsen, E. S., & Wakshlag, J. J. (2018). Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Clinical Efficacy of Cannabidiol Treatment in Osteoarthritic Dogs. Frontiers in veterinary science, 5, 165
  12. Miller, R. J., & Miller, R. E. (2017). Is cannabis an effective treatment for joint pain?. Clinical and experimental rheumatology, 35 Suppl 107(5), 59–67.
  13. Vannabouathong, C., Zhu, M., Chang, Y., & Bhandari, M. (2021). Can Medical Cannabis Therapies be Cost-Effective in the Non-Surgical Management of Chronic Knee Pain?. Clinical medicine insights. Arthritis and musculoskeletal disorders, 14, 11795441211002492.
  14. Hunter, D.J., Oldfield, G., Tich, N., Messenheimer, J.A., & Sebree, T.B. (2018). Synthetic transdermal cannabidiol for the treatment of knee pain due to osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, 26.
  15. https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT05020028

What is depression?

Depression is a mood disorder, i.e. it affects the emotional and psychological state and is reflected in social and professional functioning, being the leading cause of disability worldwide.

Depression is an illness that affects 5% of the adult population but can occur at all ages, interfering negatively with a person's quality of life, in the personal, family, work and social spheres. In its most severe form it can even lead to suicide.

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Symptoms of depression

Types of depression

The most common types are mainly characterised by duration:

There are other forms related to other factors:

Causes and Treatment of depression

Genetic, biological, psychological, environmental and socio-cultural factors may be involved. In many cases depression is triggered by a traumatic event that has emotional impact and/or physical consequences.

At the brain level, depression is related to low levels of dopamine, serotonin and noradrenaline, the neurotransmitters that pharmacological treatment stimulates through antidepressants. Although drugs can help at the symptomatological level, treatment involves different psychological therapy strategies.

Depression and the Endocannabinoid System

El Sistema Endocannabinoide es el sistema fisiológico que se encarga de mantener el equilibrio de nuestro organismo y juega un papel crucial en la regulación de los mecanismos de estrés, tanto a nivel físico como psicológico. Puedes informarte más en este artículo sobre cómo el CBD ayuda a reducir altos niveles de estrés.

A nivel fisiológico, el SEC interactúa con diferentes neurotransmisores, incluyendo la serotonina, la dopamina y la noradrenalina. Esta acción es debida principalmente a los receptores CB1, presentes sobre todo en el Sistema Nervioso Central y a los 5HT1a, receptores de la serotonina. (5)

Se ha hipotetizado, como ocurre en otras enfermedades, que un desequilibrio del Sistema Endocannabinoide puede dar origen a los mecanismos fisiopatológicos de la depresión.

Por esta razón, gracias a un tratamiento con fitocannabinoides es posible modular los niveles de los neurotransmisores mencionados, mejorando los síntomas físicos y psicológicos de la depresión. (6)

Aunque el uso del THC podría resultar positivo en algunos casos en los cuales el consumo es controlado y supervisado por un profesional, en la mayoría de los casos la psicoactividad podría llevar a un empeoramiento de los síntomas, siendo el abuso de THC un factor de comorbilidad de la depresión. (7)(8)(9)

En cambio, el uso del CBD podría representar una buena herramienta terapéutica por sus diferentes mecanismos de acción, sus efectos y por no ser psicoactivo.

el CBD regula el sueño, apetito y el estado de ánimo

How CBD could help treat depression?

Las propiedades del CBD pueden ser beneficiosas para aliviar diferentes síntomas de la depresión:

(10-11-12-13)

El aceite de cbd ayuda contra todo tipo de dolores musculares. Descubre sus beneficios y propiedades.

What do studies say about the use of CBD for depressive symptoms?

There are studies in both animals and humans that demonstrate the safety and efficacy of CBD in the treatment of depressive symptoms, justifying the need for more comprehensive and controlled studies.

In addition, there is strong clinical evidence for the efficacy of CBD in alleviating symptoms of anxiety, which is often associated with depressive disorders. Several clinical trials are studying its anxiolytic properties in depth.

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How to use CBD for depression?

In order to take advantage of the properties of CBD that help alleviate depressive symptoms, it is necessary to use it internally (not regulated in Spain), both through inhalation and sublingual use. It is advisable to start with low to medium concentration products (5%-10%), initially using minimal doses (1-2 drops) and gradually increasing the dose until the effects appear. In any case, when opting for this route, it is always advisable to contact a specialised professional who can offer personalised advice, follow-up and, if possible, psychological therapeutic support.Precautions: Is CBD safe?

CBD is a very safe substance even if used in large quantities, but care should be taken when taking medication or if you suffer from heart or blood pressure problems. For this reason in these cases it is always advisable to contact a health professional.

Possible side effects

Side effects are usually mild to moderate and may include tiredness, drowsiness, dry mouth, dizziness and decreased appetite.

Bibliography:

terature:https://medlineplus.gov/spanish/ency/article/003213.htm

  1. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/espanol/depresion-sp
  2. https://www.who.int/es/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/depression
  3. https://www.elsevier.es/es-revista-farmacia-profesional-3-articulo-antidepresivos-13081504
  4. https://www.fundacion-canna.es/sistema-endocannabinoide
  5. Rana, T., Behl, T., Sehgal, A., Mehta, V., Singh, S., Kumar, R., & Bungau, S. (2021). Integrating Endocannabinoid Signalling In Depression. Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN, 71(10), 2022–2034.
  6. Onaemo, V. N., Fawehinmi, T. O., & D'Arcy, C. (2021). Comorbid Cannabis Use Disorder with Major Depression and Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Systematic Review with Meta-analysis of Nationally Representative Epidemiological Surveys. Journal of affective disorders, 281, 467–475.
  7. Lowe, D., Sasiadek, J. D., Coles, A. S., & George, T. P. (2019). Cannabis and mental illness: a review. European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience, 269(1), 107–120.
  8. Feingold, D., & Weinstein, A. (2021). Cannabis and Depression. Advances in experimental medicine and biology, 1264, 67–80.
  9. García-Gutiérrez, M. S., Navarrete, F., Gasparyan, A., Austrich-Olivares, A., Sala, F., & Manzanares, J. (2020). Cannabidiol: A Potential New Alternative for the Treatment of Anxiety, Depression, and Psychotic Disorders. Biomolecules, 10(11), 1575.
  10. Oberbarnscheidt, T., & Miller, N. S. (2020). The Impact of Cannabidiol on Psychiatric and Medical Conditions. Journal of clinical medicine research, 12(7), 393–403.
  11. Crippa, J. A., Guimarães, F. S., Campos, A. C., & Zuardi, A. W. (2018). Translational Investigation of the Therapeutic Potential of Cannabidiol (CBD): Toward a New Age. Frontiers in immunology, 9, 2009. 
  12. De Mello Schier, A. R., de Oliveira Ribeiro, N. P., Coutinho, D. S., Machado, S., Arias-Carrión, O., Crippa, J. A., Zuardi, A. W., Nardi, A. E., & Silva, A. C. (2014). Antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol: a chemical compound of Cannabis sativa. CNS & neurological disorders drug targets, 13(6), 953–960. 
  13. Silote, G. P., Sartim, A., Sales, A., Eskelund, A., Guimarães, F. S., Wegener, G., & Joca, S. (2019). Emerging evidence for the antidepressant effect of cannabidiol and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Journal of chemical neuroanatomy, 98,

CBD oil has a wide range of health benefits. From relieving chronic pain to achieving a state of relaxation in diseases such as epilepsy or anxiety. But we can't forget that cbd is also anti-inflammatory.

Many people wonder whether cbd has better anti-inflammatory properties than ibuprofen. So, to clear up any doubts, we are going to talk about the anti-inflammatory power of CBD.

CBD vs ibuprofen

In this section we will assess the effects of CBD vs ibuprofen, the most commonly used drug to combat inflammatory effects and bodily discomfort.

Many people turn to ibuprofen when they have some kind of discomfort or inflammation in their body. Its effectiveness is more than proven, although like any medical drug, it should not be abused without a doctor's prescription.

CBD has become an alternative for those who suffer from inflammation and chronic pain and do not want to take chemical medications.

But can CBD really be a substitute for ibuprofen?

Ibuprofen has a more immediate effect (or at least is felt in a shorter period of time), but CBD remedies require longer exposure in the body to have their effects. However, this will depend on the dose used.

It is also worth bearing in mind that medications can become habit-forming and lose their effectiveness after prolonged use, as is the case with ibuprofen. However, this is not the case with CBD, and increasing the dosage does not pose as much of a health risk as using ibuprofen.

Ultimately, CBD oil and its derivatives can help in the treatment of pain and inflammation over a longer period of time, whereas ibuprofen will provide relief at specific times and more quickly. However, if CBD is to be used as an anti-inflammatory, it is best to seek the advice of a medical professional.

Efectos del CBD antiinflamatorio

CBD anti-inflammatory properties

There are certain ailments or illnesses that, after scientific study, it has been shown that their consequences and effects on the body can be minimised by using cannabidiol as an anti-inflammatory. Some cases in which cbd is anti-inflammatory:

In short, CBD can contribute with its inflammatory effect to:

CBD oil for inflammation

And you are probably wondering what happens if the inflammation is internal. Well, CBD can also be taken in the form of consumable oil, capsules, infusions, jelly beans, etc. However, it must always be supervised by a medical professional.

CBD oil can help relieve pain and inflammation and with fewer side effects than taking ibuprofen, both in the short and long term.

CBD oils are among the most common compounds used by people today. This is because it allows for better and more effective dosing, as well as a long shelf life. The texture of CBD is very similar to other oils, although alcohol is used as a carrier instead of oil. This gives it a longer shelf life and makes it easier for herbalists and naturopaths to mix it with other herbs or essential oils that have anti-inflammatory properties among their components. However, this alcohol-infused oil cannot be ingested.

To take CBD for inflammation, simply measure the recommended or desired dose with the dropper containing the product and place it under the tongue for a quick effect, or ingest it for a slower, more controlled effect.

In general, it is estimated that oils and sprays taken orally are absorbed into the bloodstream in an average of 10-45 minutes.

Aceites de cannabis para el dolor y reducir la inflamación

CBD anti-inflammatory cream

When using CBD as an anti-inflammatory, it is important to consider where the inflammation is located. Swelling and irritation on external areas caused by rashes or injuries can be treated with CBD ointments, lotions or creams applied directly to the affected area.

Any inflammation of the skin also benefits from ingesting CBD oil. However, the most common mode of treatment is topical (on the skin). This allows the cannabidiol to concentrate in the affected local tissues.

We can use the anti-inflammatory cannabidiol topically in cases of:

In general, CBD balms and creams can take longer to reach the pores of the skin, up to 90 minutes if rubbed into the affected area. Because CBD takes longer to take effect and is slower to work, balms and topicals often have higher concentrations of CBD added to them to make them work. Similarly, metabolism and body fat influence the way CBD is absorbed by the body.

What are the best anti-inflammatory creams with CBD?

CBD creams and ointments are dermatological and cosmetic products that contain cannabidiol in their composition, either using oil or extract.

Below, we are going to talk about two topical solutions containing CBD. One is the CBD recovery balm and the other is Alivium CBD cold effect.

CBD Recovery Balm

A remedy in case of muscle and joint injuries is to use the muscle recovery balm with cbd, as it will activate and improve the body's well-being.

In addition, this product contains 95.95% natural ingredients that have been certified by the European Union and are animal cruelty-free. In addition, it has been produced in Spain and is dermatologically tested.

This cannabidiol balm is composed of natural ingredients that act on the affected area immediately and provides benefits such as:

Rich in Cannabidiol.
It tones and moisturises the skin, giving a feeling of recovery.
It is ideal to apply before, during or after sport or daily tasks.
It has an immediate cold effect.
It gives a great feeling of body relaxation.

Its ingredients include CBD, essential oils (hemp, mint, lemongrass, clove, eucalyptus, arnica and rosehip) and honey.

To use, a small amount of the balm should be applied to the affected area or area to be treated, spreading the product with a gentle massage in circular movements to ensure complete absorption. It can be used at any time of the day.

Similarly, the CBD recovery balm can be used in combination with other products to achieve a greater effect and can be used on hands and legs after physical exercise.

Alivium CBD Cold Effect

Alivium CBD cream has a revolutionary formula composed of honey and cannabidiol (CBD). CBD acts on the endocannabinoid system, which regulates essential functions in the body, and reduces the sensation of pain.

This product is composed of 95.9% natural ingredients which are CBD, honey, mental, lemongrass, clove, arnica, rosehip and eucalyptus. All these elements contribute to Alivium giving us a series of benefits such as:

To use, apply a small amount to the area to be treated and spread with a gentle massage in circular motions for complete absorption. It can be used 2 or 3 times a day to comfort the skin and use cbd as an anti-inflammatory.

Bibliography:

  1. Fatouros, I., & Jamurtas, A. (2016). Insights into the molecular etiology of exercise-induced inflammation: opportunities for optimizing performance. Journal of Inflammation Research, 9, 175 – 186.
  2. McCartney, D., Benson, M.J., Desbrow, B. et al. Cannabidiol and Sports Performance: a Narrative Review of Relevant Evidence and Recommendations for Future Research. Sports Med – Open 6, 27 (2020). https://sportsmedicine-open.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s40798-020-00251-0
  3. Langer, H. T., Mossakowski, A. A., Pathak, S., Mascal, M. J., & Baar, K. (2021). Cannabidiol does not impair anabolic signaling following eccentric contractions in rats. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism31(2), 93-100. https://journals.humankinetics.com/view/journals/ijsnem/31/2/article-p93.xml
  4. Kogan NM, Melamed E, Wasserman E, et al. Cannabidiol, a Major Non-Psychotropic Cannabis Constituent Enhances Fracture Healing and Stimulates Lysyl Hydroxylase Activity in Osteoblasts. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research : the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. 2015 Oct;30(10):1905-1913. DOI: 10.1002/jbmr.2513.
  5. Cruz, Candelaria. (2020). The effects of Cannabidiol (CBD) on Perceived Muscle Soreness, Inflammation, and Performance after Bouts of Eccentric Exercise of the Elbow Flexors.
  6. Cochrane-Snyman KC, Cruz C, Morales J, Coles M. The Effects of Cannabidiol Oil on Noninvasive Measures of Muscle Damage in Men. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2021 Jul;53(7):1460-1472. DOI: 10.1249/mss.0000000000002606.
  7. Kasper, A.M., Sparks, S.A., Hooks, M.C., Skeer, M., Webb, B., Nia, H., Morton, J., & Close, G. (2020). High Prevalence of Cannabidiol Use Within Male Professional Rugby Union and League Players: A Quest for Pain Relief and Enhanced Recovery. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism, 1-8.
  8. Pellati, Federica & Borgonetti, Vittoria & Brighenti, Virginia & Biagi, Marco & Benvenuti, Stefania & Corsi, Lorenzo. (2018). Cannabis sativa L. and Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoids: Their Chemistry and Role against Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Cancer. BioMed Research International. 2018. 1-15. 10.1155/2018/1691428.
  9. Burstein S. Cannabidiol (CBD) and its analogs: a review of their effects on inflammation. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 2015 Apr;23(7):1377-1385. DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2015.01.059.
  10. Hobbs, Jack & Vazquez, Allegra & Remijan, Nicholas & Trotter, Roxanne & McMillan, Thomas & Freedman, Kimberly & Wei, Yuren & Woelfel, Keith & Arnold, Olivia & Wolfe, Lisa & Johnson, Sarah & Weir, Tiffany. (2020). Evaluation of pharmacokinetics and acute anti?inflammatory potential of two oral cannabidiol preparations in healthy adults. Phytotherapy Research. 34. 10.1002/ptr.6651.
  11. Sangiovanni, E., Fumagalli, M., Pacchetti, B., Piazza, S., Magnavacca, A., Khalilpour, S., Melzi, G., Martinelli, G., & Dell’Agli, M. (2019). Cannabis sativa L. extract and cannabidiol inhibit in vitro mediators of skin inflammation and wound injury. Phytotherapy research : PTR, 33(8), 2083–2093. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6400

What is CBD Lip Balm?

The CBD lip balm is used on lips and sensitive areas to deal with problems caused by the sun, cold and pollution. Its moisturising, soothing, anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory action is a good tool to alleviate problems due to burns, herpes, rashes, chapped skin, irritations and scars.

CBD and lip skin

The lips are covered by a thinner layer of skin than the rest of the body and for this reason they are more sensitive and more delicate.

Due to their continuous exposure they are subject to problems due to external factors such as the sun, cold, air quality and possible shocks.

There are also personal factors that can have a negative influence on the health of the lips, such as certain smoking habits and certain eating habits. There are also internal factors such as poor hydration and nutritional imbalances.

However, the skin of the lips has an excellent capacity for regeneration, it is advisable to use natural products with moisturising properties such as creams to help prevent and treat possible ailments.

(1)(2)

Properties and Benefits of CBD Lip Balm

CBD has anti-inflammatory properties that are very useful in case of skin inflammations and wounds, helping the regeneration of damaged tissues (3)(4)(9), thanks to the high presence of endocannabinoid receptors in the skin tissue, in particular CB2 and TRPV that help regulate inflammatory processes and relieve symptoms of itching and pain (5)(6)(7)(10).

In addition, Cannabis can alleviate symptoms of oral diseases involving inflammation and pain, as in the case of burning mouth syndrome that also involves the lips (8).

It is also important to consider the antibacterial and antibiotic properties of CBD, very useful in case of skin lesions that may be at risk of infection (9).

CBD 8 Beneficios

BURNS and CBD

The skin of the lips contains little melanin, so it has little protection from sunlight and can easily burn. In addition, certain smoking habits can cause burns on the lips (1). Skin burns involve tissue inflammation and a certain degree of skin cell death, so the healing process must be carefully monitored.

Thanks to its anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant activity, CBD alleviates the symptoms associated with burn episodes, while also facilitating blood circulation and optimising the cell regeneration process.

HERPES and CBD

Herpes is an infection that attacks the lips and mouth and causes small blisters, and is caused by the herpes simplex virus. After the first infection, the virus goes dormant and can be reactivated at other times (12). An in vitro study (13) suggests the involvement of the Endocannabinoid System in the regulation of herpes simplex, noting that THC may have some positive effect and consequently possibly also CBD, thanks to its immunomodulatory and antibiotic properties.

At the popular level, herpes is listed as one of the medical problems for which Cannabis is recommended in dispensaries in the United States, Canada and Europe (14).

SORROWED LIPS and CBD

The skin of the lips does not have sweat glands and needs to be moisturised through saliva, so in environmental conditions that favour evaporation, both the lips and the skin around them can become chapped. This can occur either in the sun and dry climate or in enclosed, air-conditioned places such as offices, where there is frequent talking which can lead to dehydration (1). LIPBALM and creams contain ingredients that help to keep the lips moisturised, to prevent and treat the appearance of possible chapping, and thanks to the anti-inflammatory properties of CBD, it relieves the symptoms of pain and itching, and also promotes skin regeneration.

CBD 8 beneficios

SORE SKIN and CBD

Apart from the lips, there are other areas of the body whose skin can become dry and chapped, both through exposure to environmental factors (such as the face and hands) and their location (such as the feet). Similar to considerations for chapped lips, LIP BALM and other CBD creams can help maintain hydration and relieve itching, pain and possible inflammation. A recent study on the topical use of CBD on dry and sensitive skin has shown significant improvement of symptoms associated with dermatitis.(11)

IRRITATIONS and CBD

Skin irritations can be caused by external and internal factors, leading to an inflammatory state. Thanks to its anti-inflammatory and antibiotic effect, CBD is very useful in case of skin irritations, relieving the sensation of stinging, pain and itching as observed in a recent study (11). CBD helps regulate irritative processes both externally, by acting against pathogens, and internally, by modulating the inflammatory response of the body and the skin.

SARPULLIDES and CBD

Rashes are a type of irritation that can occur on both the skin and lips and can even cause sores or blisters. As with other types of irritation, CBD can help to regulate the irritative processes and relieve the sensation of pain and itching.

Scars and CBD

Scars are the consequences of deep wounds that can involve even muscle tissue. Thanks to the presence of endocannabinoid receptors in both epithelial and muscle tissue, CBD relieves inflammation and pain caused by deep wounds, also providing an important antibacterial effect. CBD also promotes tissue regeneration, favouring the formation of new, aesthetically and functionally healthier skin, maintaining its colour, texture and elasticity (as we have seen in the article on ACNE).

TATTOOING and CBD

Tattoos are more superficial wounds, although on an aesthetic level it is very important to take care of the healing process as it involves a certain degree of scarring. Similar to the considerations made for scars, CBD can support the initial care process, relieving inflammation and pain and preventing infection, and optimise the regeneration and healing process from both an aesthetic and functional point of view, while also reducing itching sensations. In addition, LIP BALM contains ingredients that help maintain skin hydration, a key factor in achieving a well-healed tattoo.

Conclusion

LIPBALM can be a good ally in the treatment of different skin and lip conditions, providing an important anti-inflammatory effect, relieving symptoms of pain and itching and reducing the risk of infections. In addition, LIPBALM and other CBD creams contain ingredients that help to maintain adequate hydration.

HOW TO USE LIP BALM

LIPBALM is used externally only, applying the product directly to the lips or the affected skin area, trying to massage gently until it is absorbed.

When used externally, the effect appears after 15-20 minutes and lasts for 2-3 hours, so it is advisable to apply 3 or 4 times a day depending on your needs.

Bibliography:

  1. https://www.elsevier.es/es-revista-farmacia-profesional-3-articulo-cuidado-labios-13072097
  2. Piccinin MA, Zito PM. Anatomy, Head and Neck, Lips. [Updated 2021 Jun 18]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan
  3. Sangiovanni, E., Fumagalli, M., Pacchetti, B., Piazza, S., Magnavacca, A., Khalilpour, S., Melzi, G., Martinelli, G., & Dell’Agli, M. (2019). Cannabis sativa L. extract and cannabidiol inhibit in vitro mediators of skin inflammation and wound injury. Phytotherapy research : PTR, 33(8), 2083–2093
  4. Palmieri, Beniamino & Laurino, Carmen & vadalà, Maria. (2019). A therapeutic effect of cbd-enriched ointment in inflammatory skin diseases and cutaneous scars. La Clinica terapeutica. 170
  5. Sheriff, Tabrez & Lin, Matthew J. & Dubin, Danielle & Khorasani, Hooman (2019). The potential role of cannabinoids in dermatology, Journal of Dermatological Treatment, 31:8, 839-845
  6. Kupczyk, Piotr & Reich, Adam & Szepietowski, Jacek. (2009). Kupczyk P, Reich A, Szepietowski JC.Cannabinoid system in the skin – a possible target for future therapies in dermatology. Exp Dermatol 18:669-679. Experimental dermatology. 18. 669-79
  7. Eagleston, Lauren & Kuseh Kalani Yazd, Nazanin & Patel, Ravi & Flaten, Hania & Dunnick, Cory & Dellavalle, Robert. (2018). Cannabinoids in dermatology: A scoping review. Dermatology online journal. 24
  8. Gambino, A., Cabras, M., Panagiotakos, E., Calvo, F., Macciotta, A., Cafaro, A., Suria, M., Haddad, G. E., Broccoletti, R., & Arduino, P. G. (2021). Evaluating the Suitability and Potential Efficiency of Cannabis sativa Oil for Patients with Primary Burning Mouth Syndrome: A Prospective, Open-Label, Single-Arm Pilot Study. Pain medicine (Malden, Mass.), 22(1), 142–151.
  9. Baswan, S. M., Klosner, A. E., Glynn, K., Rajgopal, A., Malik, K., Yim, S., & Stern, N. (2020). Therapeutic Potential of Cannabidiol (CBD) for Skin Health and Disorders. Clinical, cosmetic and investigational dermatology, 13, 927–942.
  10. Jastrz?b, A., G?gotek, A., & Skrzydlewska, E. (2019). Cannabidiol Regulates the Expression of Keratinocyte Proteins Involved in the Inflammation Process through Transcriptional Regulation. Cells, 8(8), 827.
  11. Maghfour, J., Rietcheck, H. R., Rundle, C. W., Runion, T. M., Jafri, Z. A., Dercon, S., Lio, P., Fernandez, J., Fujita, M., Dellavalle, R. P., & Yardley, H. (2020). An Observational Study of the Application of a Topical Cannabinoid Gel on Sensitive Dry Skin. Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD, 19(12), 1204–1208.
  12. https://medlineplus.gov/spanish/ency/article/000606.htm
  13. Medveczky, M. M., Sherwood, T. A., Klein, T. W., Friedman, H., & Medveczky, P. G. (2004). Delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) inhibits lytic replication of gamma oncogenic herpesviruses in vitro. BMC medicine, 2, 34.
  14. Lim, M., & Kirchhof, M. G. (2019). Dermatology-Related Uses of Medical Cannabis Promoted by Dispensaries in Canada, Europe, and the United States. Journal of cutaneous medicine and surgery, 23(2), 178–184.

CBD has been a trending topic but even more so in the world of sports. This is due to the different studies that have been published on the properties of CBD. Today we already know the effects of CBD and the benefits that it can provide for high-performance athletes. Later in this article we will discuss how some of the most important high-performance athletes are using CBD. First let’s talk about why CBD and sports go hand in hand.

What is CBD?

Cannabis has been used by humans for thousands of years. But it was not until the 20th century that we began to study it under the microscope. In 1964, Raphael Mechoulam managed to isolate and synthesize the structure of CBD and THC. They began to discover the properties and benefits of cannabinoids in the human body. The most studied cannabinoids to date are THC and CBD.

Cannabidiol does not present the same psychoactive effects as THC, that is to say it does not make you feel high. In the World Health Organization’s report in November 2019 they stated that CBD is neither dangerous nor addictive. The WHO also recognizes the promising effects of CBD for medicinal and therapeutic use due to its multitude of benefits and properties, among which are its antioxidant, antibacterial, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects.

CBD y deporte
Topical use of CBD for muscle and joint inflammation is the most commonly recommended form of using CBD for localized pain.

What are the benefits of CBD?

CBD has the following properties:

 

It can be used for diseases like epilepsy, fibromyalgia and MS.

Why are athletes using CBD?

Athletes have been using CBD for a while to decrease recovery time. High performance athletes push their body's to its limits. Joints, ligaments, tendons and muscles can suffer and produce small injuries. What marks how far an athlete can go is their resilience. The sooner you recover, the sooner you can train or compete again. Athletes use CBD for inflammation, chronic pain, nausea, nerves and muscle relaxation.

CBD interacts with cannabinoid receptors. We don’t know exactly in what way but researchers have found that CBD may not bind with CB1 and CB2 receptors, but it does influence and activate them in a certain way which promotes the healthy function of our endocannabinoid system and offers CBD’s properties globally. CBD has also been found to affect another cannabinoid receptor, the TRPV1 receptor, which is responsible for our body's response to pain and inflammation.

 

An interesting fact: Something very interesting which is now being studied is the relationship between CBD and an endocannabinoid called Anandamide, the bliss molecule. Our body naturally produces Anandamide and it is known to interact with CB1, CB2 and TRPV1 receptors.

Anandamide is responsible for that post-workout euphoric feeling, also known as the runner's high. CBD can slow down the breakdown of anandamide and prolong the feeling of bliss and relaxation that we feel after working out.

 

How to use CBD?

There are several ways to use CBD. In the case of muscle pain, it is recommended that athletes use recovery balms and CBD creams.

In Spain only external use is regulated, but in other countries, like the United States, internal use is regulated. In these countries the most common way of using CBD is sublingually through CBD oil.

Marvin Washington usa CBD
Marvin Washington, professional NFL player, stands behind CBD's benefits for athletes.

Elite athletes who use CBD

There are many elite athletes who use CBD daily, both for training and for competition. Marvin Washington, a former NFL player believes that the time has come to consider the promising therapeutic properties of CBD as a safe alternative to opioids:

“There should be an athlete cannabis movement, as there is strength in numbers. Enough numbers and we will be able to change policy and make the four major leagues look at the whole cannabis plant as an alternative to opiates. Concussions and opiates are the two biggest issues the NFL is facing concerning players’ health, and cannabis can help both.”

It is also worth mentioning the cyclist Floyd Landis, champion of the Tour de France in 2006. Landis has used CBD since his hip operation, where he had a prosthesis implanted. Another cyclist and triathlete who uses CBD for muscle pain is Andrew Talansky, who has also acknowledged that it helps him sleep.

The world of extreme sports have been pioneers in the use of these products. There are studies showing that many board athletes (surf, snow, skate, ski, etc.) already use CBD to improve their performance. An example would be Ross Rebagliati, Olympic snowboard champion or Billy Kemper, XXL surf champion. Both use CBD to improve their performance and to achieve faster muscle recovery. Billy Kemper confessed that he found CBD when he was looking for natural products that could help his mother with nausea and sleep issues. In this extreme sports area, there are countless cases of athletes using these kinds of products; Mason Ho, Jaime O’brien, Tony Hawk, Nathan Florence, Nate Diaz…

Outside of extreme sports, there are other athletes who use CBD products such as the well-known golfer Bubba Watson or the world champion in soccer, Megan Rapione.

CBD legality in high performance competitions

Any derivative of cannabis has been banned in the world of sports, including CBD, until January 1, 2018, when the World Anti-Doping Agency excluded CBD from the list of prohibited substances. In the Tokyo Olympics CBD will be highly present due to its benefits for physical activity and health.

In recent years, many athletes have joined the CBD wave, as a natural remedy for chronic pain, inflammation, muscle spasms, nausea etc... CBD consumption in sports is increasing quickly day by day. As research progresses, we will be able to discover new properties and applications of this cannabis derivative. 

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