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The phases of sleep and restful sleep

Sleep is the most frequent activity of every human being, being of fundamental importance for the health of our organism. As we learned in the article on "how to take CBD for sleep", sleep disorders are very common and can have negative consequences on many metabolic functions, as well as entailing varying degrees of personal and occupational disability.


The phases of sleep

Sleep is made up of several cycles of approximately 1:30-2 hours' duration that are repeated 5-6 times each night: for this reason it is advisable to have 7-8 hours of sleep, as a shorter duration would mean a reduction in the number of cycles and/or the possibility of interrupting one of them, which would have a negative influence on the quality of sleep and rest.

Each sleep cycle is composed of 4 phases, of which only the last one represents REM sleep (rapid eye movement)

After 70-90 minutes, sleep begins:

How CBD can help you get better sleep

The rhythm of sleep and wakefulness is regulated by two biological mechanisms:

The endocannabinoid system is primarily responsible for maintaining the psycho-physical balance of our organism, and therefore plays a very important role in the regulation of circadian rhythms and the different phases of sleep (11).

Fluctuations in the concentration of the main endocannabinoids in the brain are related to the sleep-wake cycle, in particular 2-AG is more present during the day and promotes alertness, while Anandamide is more concentrated at night, promoting the appearance of slow brain waves.

The cannabinoid receptor most involved in brain circuits and whose expression influences the regulation of circadian rhythms and the stability of NREM sleep is the CB1 receptor, through which the Endocannabinoid System modulates the different neurotransmitters involved in the different phases of sleep.

One third of the world's population reports having problems related to the quantity or quality of sleep, which can be caused by a variety of factors, from stress or illness to eating habits and daily activities. In addition, sleep disorders can be a trigger for psychiatric problems such as anxiety and depression, as well as having a negative impact on the quality of daily life.

In any of the above-mentioned cases, an altered activity of the Endocannabinoid System can be observed, therefore a treatment with phytocannabinoids could be very promising.

In particular, CBD could represent a very effective tool due to its different properties:

References and Studies on CBD and insomnia

Studies show that among the vast majority of therapeutic users of Cannabis, one of the main reasons for its use is to alleviate sleep problems or improve sleep quality (4-6).

Some studies have shown beneficial effects of CBD on the quantity and quality of sleep (14), increasing its duration and reducing night-time awakenings, as well as being able to alleviate behavioural disorders during REM sleep (3-13).

Other studies have observed an improvement in sleep problems related to phase 3 NREM sleep, due to an inhibitory effect on FAAH enzymes (Anandamide degrading enzymes), which is one of the effects of CBD on the endocannabinoid system (6).

In clinical trials of Sativex, it has been observed that a balanced combination of THC and CBD provides significant improvements in sleep quality (5), and some researchers hypothesise that CBD can improve sleep problems when accompanied by a small proportion of THC, thanks to the synergistic effect between the two compounds. In general, while sporadic use of higher amounts of THC may facilitate a state of relaxation and drowsiness, continued use may negatively influence sleep quality (7-12).

Clinical trials are showing very promising results using CBD products alone or in combination with other cannabinoids such as THC and CBN. (6)

Aceite de CBD: descubre los beneficios

How to take CBD to facilitate restful sleep

To alleviate sleep problems and to improve its restorative effect, it is essential to take CBD internally, especially through sublingual use (not regulated in Spain).

In general, it is advisable to start with a low to medium concentration of cbd oil (5%-10%), initially using minimal doses and gradually increasing the amount of drops until the effect appears. If you want to go down this route, it is advisable to seek advice and follow-up with a specialised health professional.

Other tips to help you get a good night's sleep

The quality of sleep can be influenced both positively and negatively by some daily habits, so there are some good practices that help to facilitate a restful sleep, for example:

Final conclusions on CBD and insomnia

Thanks to its relaxing and modulating effect on the Endocannabinoid System, CBD can represent a valuable therapeutic tool both for dealing with sleep-related problems and for optimising and facilitating its regenerative and restorative effect.

Is CBD safe? Precautions

CBD is a very safe substance even if used in large quantities, but care should be taken when taking medication or if you suffer from heart or blood pressure problems. For this reason in these cases it is always advisable to contact a health professional.
Possible adverse effects
Adverse effects are usually mild to moderate in severity and may include tiredness, drowsiness, dry mouth, dizziness and decreased appetite.


  1. https://espanol.nichd.nih.gov/salud/temas/sleep/informacion/sucede
  2. https://www.ninds.nih.gov/health-information/patient-caregiver-education/brain-basics-understanding-sleep
  3. https://www.projectcbd.org/medicine/cannabis-sleep-disturbances
  4. Babson, K.A., Bonn-Miller, M.O. (2014) Sleep Disturbances: Implications for Cannabis Use, Cannabis Use Cessation, and Cannabis Use Treatment. Curr Addict Rep 1, 109–114
  5. Russo, E. B., Guy, G. W., & Robson, P. J. (2007). Cannabis, pain, and sleep: lessons from therapeutic clinical trials of Sativex, a cannabis-based medicine. Chemistry & biodiversity, 4(8), 1729–1743.
  6. Suraev, A. S., Marshall, N. S., Vandrey, R., McCartney, D., Benson, M. J., McGregor, I. S., Grunstein, R. R., & Hoyos, C. M. (2020). Cannabinoid therapies in the management of sleep disorders: A systematic review of preclinical and clinical studies. Sleep medicine reviews, 53, 101339.
  7. Kesner, A. J., & Lovinger, D. M. (2020). Cannabinoids, Endocannabinoids and Sleep. Frontiers in molecular neuroscience, 13, 125
  8. Pava, M. J., Makriyannis, A., & Lovinger, D. M. (2016). Endocannabinoid Signaling Regulates Sleep Stability. PloS one, 11(3), e0152473
  9. Méndez-Díaz, M., Ruiz-Contreras, A. E., Cortés-Morelos, J., & Prospéro-García, O. (2021). Cannabinoids and Sleep/Wake Control. Advances in experimental medicine and biology, 1297, 83–95
  10. Hanlon E. C. (2020). Impact of circadian rhythmicity and sleep restriction on circulating endocannabinoid (eCB) N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide). Psychoneuroendocrinology, 111, 104471
  11. Prospéro-García, O., Amancio-Belmont, O., Becerril Meléndez, A. L., Ruiz-Contreras, A. E., & Méndez-Díaz, M. (2016). Endocannabinoids and sleep. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews, 71, 671–679.
  12. Babson, K. A., Sottile, J., & Morabito, D. (2017). Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and Sleep: a Review of the Literature. Current psychiatry reports, 19(4), 23
  13. de Almeida, C., Brito, M., Bosaipo, N. B., Pimentel, A. V., Tumas, V., Zuardi, A. W., Crippa, J., Hallak, J., & Eckeli, A. L. (2021). Cannabidiol for Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder. Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society, 36(7), 1711–1715.
  14. Shannon, S., Lewis, N., Lee, H., & Hughes, S. (2019). Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: A Large Case Series. The Permanente journal, 23, 18–041. https://doi.org/10.7812/TPP/18-041

Among the diseases that can affect the musculoskeletal system, causing pain and inflammation, problems affecting the knees, one of the most complex joints in the human body due to its crucial role in maintaining posture and movement, stand out. Knee pain can have different causes and manifest itself in acute or chronic form, causing varying degrees of personal and occupational incapacity and negatively influencing the quality of life of the sufferer.

One of the most frequent causes of knee pain is osteoarthritis (OA), which occurs in 4% of the population and represents the eleventh leading cause of disability worldwide.


Most common causes of knee pain

The knee is a joint composed of:

There are different problems that can affect the knees, causing pain and inflammation, and they can occur at any age, and may be related to specific mechanical trauma, the presence of a disease or wear and tear due to the passage of time. Being overweight can play a crucial role in the development of knee pain and problems, as can many physical and heavy sports or jobs.

The most common causes of knee pain can be:

Diagnóstico y tratamientos para el dolor de rodilla

Diagnosis is made by physical examination and using techniques such as arthroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging.

Depending on the severity of the problem, analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs are usually prescribed as well as compensatory physical exercise and weight control strategies, as postural changes due to knee problems can also lead to back pain.

In the most severe cases, surgery is necessary to heal bone fractures, tendon, ligament and meniscus injuries.


How CBD works against knee pain

The endocannabinoid system, which is dedicated to maintaining the psycho-physical balance of our organism, is present in both the muscular and skeletal systems, participating in the processes of recovery from an injury or fracture and also modulating inflammatory processes and pain sensation thanks to its close relationship with the nervous and immune systems (3).

Different studies have observed the presence of endocannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 in the synovial fluid, and in people suffering from osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis, the presence of the main endocannabinoids such as anandamide and 2-AG, as well as the FAAH degrading enzyme, has also been recorded. (4) (5) (6)

CBD, thanks to its modulatory activity on the endocannabinoid system, can alleviate knee pain resulting from various causes. In particular, CBD would provide

Studies on the effect of CBD in animals

Numerous studies have recorded an analgesic, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effect of CBD in experimental models of osteoarthritis in animals, also observing a preventive effect against possible neurological damage and consequent neuropathic pain, and confirming the capacity to slow down the degenerative process, with doses of 5 mg/kg or 25 mg/day.


While most of the studies cited above have used the endovenous or transdermal route, there is one study carried out on dogs with OA using the ingested route: the results have shown significant improvements in symptoms after taking 4 mg of CBD a day for a month.


Studies on the effect of CBD in humans

Preclinical evidence shows the beneficial effects of CBD in relieving pain and reducing inflammation in joints, demonstrating how phytocannabinoid treatments can represent a safe, effective and economical option for treating acute or chronic problems such as arthritis and osteoarthritis of the knee.


More specifically, significant improvements have been reported following transdermal application of synthetic CBD and a clinical trial is currently under preparation to study the effectiveness of oral applications of CBD in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.


El aceite de cbd ayuda contra todo tipo de dolores musculares. Descubre sus beneficios y propiedades.

How to take CBD for knee pain

According to studies, it is possible to take CBD internally in inhaled, sublingual and ingested form, as well as externally in topical and transdermal form, to treat knee pain.

The inhaled form, which ensures maximum and immediate effect, is used to cope with acute pain, using what is needed at the time.

The sublingual form (not regulated in Spain) is used to obtain a continuous and stable effect and represents a better option compared to the ingested form (not regulated in Spain). In general, it is advisable to start with a low to medium concentration CBD oil (5%-10%), starting with minimal doses and gradually increasing every two days until the effects appear. In this case, it is highly recommended to seek advice and monitoring by a specialised health professional.

Through the topical route, the effect is concentrated in the area of application, so it is also highly recommended to use CBD-rich oils, creams and ointments that can be applied 3-4 times a day, gently massaging the entire knee area until they are completely absorbed.

There are also transdermal patches on the market (including knee pads) which, in addition to having a direct effect on the area of application, allow a systemic effect to be obtained.

Precautions: Is CBD safe?

CBD is a very safe substance even if used in large quantities, but care should be taken when taking medication or if you have heart or blood pressure problems. For this reason in these cases it is always advisable to contact a health professional.

Possible adverse effects

Adverse effects are usually mild to moderate in severity and may include tiredness, drowsiness, dry mouth, dizziness and decreased appetite.


  1. https://medlineplus.gov/spanish/kneeinjuriesanddisorders.html
  2. https://medlineplus.gov/spanish/ency/article/003187.htm
  3. Donvito, G., Nass, S. R., Wilkerson, J. L., Curry, Z. A., Schurman, L. D., Kinsey, S. G., & Lichtman, A. H. (2018). The Endogenous Cannabinoid System: A Budding Source of Targets for Treating Inflammatory and Neuropathic Pain. Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, 43(1), 52–79.
  4. Rzeczycki, P., Rasner, C., Lammlin, L., Junginger, L., Goldman, S., Bergman, R., Redding, S., Knights, A. J., Elliott, M., & Maerz, T. (2021). Cannabinoid receptor type 2 is upregulated in synovium following joint injury and mediates anti-inflammatory effects in synovial fibroblasts and macrophages. Osteoarthritis and cartilage, 29(12), 1720–1731.
  5. Richardson, D., Pearson, R. G., Kurian, N., Latif, M. L., Garle, M. J., Barrett, D. A., Kendall, D. A., Scammell, B. E., Reeve, A. J., & Chapman, V. (2008). Characterisation of the cannabinoid receptor system in synovial tissue and fluid in patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis research & therapy, 10(2), R43.
  6. Valastro, C., Campanile, D., Marinaro, M., Franchini, D., Piscitelli, F., Verde, R., Di Marzo, V., & Di Bello, A. (2017). Characterization of endocannabinoids and related acylethanolamides in the synovial fluid of dogs with osteoarthritis: a pilot study. BMC veterinary research, 13(1), 309. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-017-1245-7
  7. Kogan NM, Melamed E, Wasserman E, et al. Cannabidiol, a Major Non-Psychotropic Cannabis Constituent Enhances Fracture Healing and Stimulates Lysyl Hydroxylase Activity in Osteoblasts. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research : the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. 2015 Oct;30(10)
  8. Malfait, A. M., Gallily, R., Sumariwalla, P. F., Malik, A. S., Andreakos, E., Mechoulam, R., & Feldmann, M. (2000). The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97(17), 9561–9566.
  9. Philpott, H. T., O'Brien, M., & McDougall, J. J. (2017). Attenuation of early phase inflammation by cannabidiol prevents pain and nerve damage in rat osteoarthritis. Pain, 158(12), 2442–2451.
  10. Hammell, D. C., Zhang, L. P., Ma, F., Abshire, S. M., McIlwrath, S. L., Stinchcomb, A. L., & Westlund, K. N. (2016). Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviours in a rat model of arthritis. European journal of pain (London, England), 20(6), 936–948.
  11. Gamble, L. J., Boesch, J. M., Frye, C. W., Schwark, W. S., Mann, S., Wolfe, L., Brown, H., Berthelsen, E. S., & Wakshlag, J. J. (2018). Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Clinical Efficacy of Cannabidiol Treatment in Osteoarthritic Dogs. Frontiers in veterinary science, 5, 165
  12. Miller, R. J., & Miller, R. E. (2017). Is cannabis an effective treatment for joint pain?. Clinical and experimental rheumatology, 35 Suppl 107(5), 59–67.
  13. Vannabouathong, C., Zhu, M., Chang, Y., & Bhandari, M. (2021). Can Medical Cannabis Therapies be Cost-Effective in the Non-Surgical Management of Chronic Knee Pain?. Clinical medicine insights. Arthritis and musculoskeletal disorders, 14, 11795441211002492.
  14. Hunter, D.J., Oldfield, G., Tich, N., Messenheimer, J.A., & Sebree, T.B. (2018). Synthetic transdermal cannabidiol for the treatment of knee pain due to osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, 26.
  15. https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT05020028

What is depression?

Depression is a mood disorder, i.e. it affects the emotional and psychological state and is reflected in social and professional functioning, being the leading cause of disability worldwide.

Depression is an illness that affects 5% of the adult population but can occur at all ages, interfering negatively with a person's quality of life, in the personal, family, work and social spheres. In its most severe form it can even lead to suicide.


Symptoms of depression

Types of depression

The most common types are mainly characterised by duration:

There are other forms related to other factors:

Causes and Treatment of depression

Genetic, biological, psychological, environmental and socio-cultural factors may be involved. In many cases depression is triggered by a traumatic event that has emotional impact and/or physical consequences.

At the brain level, depression is related to low levels of dopamine, serotonin and noradrenaline, the neurotransmitters that pharmacological treatment stimulates through antidepressants. Although drugs can help at the symptomatological level, treatment involves different psychological therapy strategies.

Depression and the Endocannabinoid System

El Sistema Endocannabinoide es el sistema fisiológico que se encarga de mantener el equilibrio de nuestro organismo y juega un papel crucial en la regulación de los mecanismos de estrés, tanto a nivel físico como psicológico. Puedes informarte más en este artículo sobre cómo el CBD ayuda a reducir altos niveles de estrés.

A nivel fisiológico, el SEC interactúa con diferentes neurotransmisores, incluyendo la serotonina, la dopamina y la noradrenalina. Esta acción es debida principalmente a los receptores CB1, presentes sobre todo en el Sistema Nervioso Central y a los 5HT1a, receptores de la serotonina. (5)

Se ha hipotetizado, como ocurre en otras enfermedades, que un desequilibrio del Sistema Endocannabinoide puede dar origen a los mecanismos fisiopatológicos de la depresión.

Por esta razón, gracias a un tratamiento con fitocannabinoides es posible modular los niveles de los neurotransmisores mencionados, mejorando los síntomas físicos y psicológicos de la depresión. (6)

Aunque el uso del THC podría resultar positivo en algunos casos en los cuales el consumo es controlado y supervisado por un profesional, en la mayoría de los casos la psicoactividad podría llevar a un empeoramiento de los síntomas, siendo el abuso de THC un factor de comorbilidad de la depresión. (7)(8)(9)

En cambio, el uso del CBD podría representar una buena herramienta terapéutica por sus diferentes mecanismos de acción, sus efectos y por no ser psicoactivo.

el CBD regula el sueño, apetito y el estado de ánimo

How CBD could help treat depression?

Las propiedades del CBD pueden ser beneficiosas para aliviar diferentes síntomas de la depresión:


El aceite de cbd ayuda contra todo tipo de dolores musculares. Descubre sus beneficios y propiedades.

What do studies say about the use of CBD for depressive symptoms?

There are studies in both animals and humans that demonstrate the safety and efficacy of CBD in the treatment of depressive symptoms, justifying the need for more comprehensive and controlled studies.

In addition, there is strong clinical evidence for the efficacy of CBD in alleviating symptoms of anxiety, which is often associated with depressive disorders. Several clinical trials are studying its anxiolytic properties in depth.


How to use CBD for depression?

In order to take advantage of the properties of CBD that help alleviate depressive symptoms, it is necessary to use it internally (not regulated in Spain), both through inhalation and sublingual use. It is advisable to start with low to medium concentration products (5%-10%), initially using minimal doses (1-2 drops) and gradually increasing the dose until the effects appear. In any case, when opting for this route, it is always advisable to contact a specialised professional who can offer personalised advice, follow-up and, if possible, psychological therapeutic support.Precautions: Is CBD safe?

CBD is a very safe substance even if used in large quantities, but care should be taken when taking medication or if you suffer from heart or blood pressure problems. For this reason in these cases it is always advisable to contact a health professional.

Possible side effects

Side effects are usually mild to moderate and may include tiredness, drowsiness, dry mouth, dizziness and decreased appetite.



  1. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/espanol/depresion-sp
  2. https://www.who.int/es/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/depression
  3. https://www.elsevier.es/es-revista-farmacia-profesional-3-articulo-antidepresivos-13081504
  4. https://www.fundacion-canna.es/sistema-endocannabinoide
  5. Rana, T., Behl, T., Sehgal, A., Mehta, V., Singh, S., Kumar, R., & Bungau, S. (2021). Integrating Endocannabinoid Signalling In Depression. Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN, 71(10), 2022–2034.
  6. Onaemo, V. N., Fawehinmi, T. O., & D'Arcy, C. (2021). Comorbid Cannabis Use Disorder with Major Depression and Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Systematic Review with Meta-analysis of Nationally Representative Epidemiological Surveys. Journal of affective disorders, 281, 467–475.
  7. Lowe, D., Sasiadek, J. D., Coles, A. S., & George, T. P. (2019). Cannabis and mental illness: a review. European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience, 269(1), 107–120.
  8. Feingold, D., & Weinstein, A. (2021). Cannabis and Depression. Advances in experimental medicine and biology, 1264, 67–80.
  9. García-Gutiérrez, M. S., Navarrete, F., Gasparyan, A., Austrich-Olivares, A., Sala, F., & Manzanares, J. (2020). Cannabidiol: A Potential New Alternative for the Treatment of Anxiety, Depression, and Psychotic Disorders. Biomolecules, 10(11), 1575.
  10. Oberbarnscheidt, T., & Miller, N. S. (2020). The Impact of Cannabidiol on Psychiatric and Medical Conditions. Journal of clinical medicine research, 12(7), 393–403.
  11. Crippa, J. A., Guimarães, F. S., Campos, A. C., & Zuardi, A. W. (2018). Translational Investigation of the Therapeutic Potential of Cannabidiol (CBD): Toward a New Age. Frontiers in immunology, 9, 2009. 
  12. De Mello Schier, A. R., de Oliveira Ribeiro, N. P., Coutinho, D. S., Machado, S., Arias-Carrión, O., Crippa, J. A., Zuardi, A. W., Nardi, A. E., & Silva, A. C. (2014). Antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol: a chemical compound of Cannabis sativa. CNS & neurological disorders drug targets, 13(6), 953–960. 
  13. Silote, G. P., Sartim, A., Sales, A., Eskelund, A., Guimarães, F. S., Wegener, G., & Joca, S. (2019). Emerging evidence for the antidepressant effect of cannabidiol and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Journal of chemical neuroanatomy, 98,
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